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mozart

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart still remains the most popular classical music composer. He is one of the most written-about and mythologised composers in the history of western music. A Google search of his name returns more than 5 million entries and there as many books about him as there are on Shakesepare and Jesus Christ. He was the subject of an acclaimed play by Peter Shaffer, and a Hollywood film, Amadeus, starring Tom Hulce. His music can be heard in shopping malls, resturants and usually, when you're put on hold on the phone by infuriating call centres. But let's not hold that against him...

Mozart was born in Salzburg, Austria on 27th January, 1756. The son of Leopold Mozart, himself a musician and composer, Mozart was taught music from a very early age and was able to play the piano at the age of 4 and was composing his own works from the age of 5. When he was 6, while learning the violin, his father took the young Mozart and his elder sister Maria Anna, also a young pianist, on a playing tour of Europe which lasted 4 years. The young Mozart astonished audiences with his precocious skills and was presented to the royal families of several countries and met King Louise of France, George III of England and Marie Antoinette.

In 1770, the 14-year-old Mozart made the first of several visits to Italy. Italian styles would go on to influence his work and he wrote two operas (Mitridate and Lucio Silla) for performance in Milan. On his return to Vienna, Mozart wrote a group of symphonies, including his two earliest, No.25 in G Minor and 29 in A. Then in 1774 Mozart secured a post as Konzertmeister at the Prince-Archibishop's Court in Salzburg where he wrote masses, symphonies, violin concertos and his first great piano concerto.
Mozart had studied hard under his father to learn the techniques of the established masters including Bach, Handel and Haydn. Mozart, Hadyn and Beethoven are often regarded as the core composers of the classical era, where the forms we know today (symphonies, sonatas and concertos) were consolidated. By 1777 the noveltly of being a child prodigy had begun to wear off (just ask Charlotte Church), and Mozart saw limited opportunities in Salzburg for a gifted composer. So, at the age of 21, Mozart was sent to Paris where, accompanied by his mother, he had minor successes, notably with his Paris Symphony No.31. But he returned from Paris alone. his mother had died there and the ensuing few years were spent in Salzburg playing in the cathedral and at court, composing sacred works, symphonies, concertos and serenades. But Mozart yearned to write an opera and in 1780 he went to Munich on a commission to write an opera. The work, Idomeneo, was a success. Mozart had demonstrated heroic emotion with a richness unparalleled elsewhere in his works, with vivid orchestral writing.

Then, at the age of 25, Mozart was summoned to Vienna, where the Salzburg court was in residence on the accession of a new emperor. But fresh from his success, Mozart found himself placed between the valets and the cooks which led to friction between the composer and his new employer. The situation was exacerbated by the Prince-Archibishop's refusal to let him perform at events the emperor was attending. So in 1781 Mozart resigned but continued to work freelance, playing at patrons' houses or in public, teaching and publishing his music. By musicians standards Mozart was earning a good income and had a carriage and servants although through lavish spending and poor management he often got into financial difficulty. He married Constanze Webber in 1782 and would go on to have six children with her (although only two survived). In the same year Mozart's ambitious opera, Die Entfuhrung as dem Serail was performed. With long, elaboratel songs, it went far beyond his usual limits and although Emperor Joseph II remarked: "Too many notes my dear Mozart," the opera was successful and toured the provincial companies. Mozart also wrote six string quartets, dedicated to Haydn. Haydn had told Mozart's father that Mozart was 'the greatest composer known to me in person or by name.'

Mozart then embarked on composing a series of piano concertos so that he could appear as a composer and a soloist. By the end of 1786 he had written fifteen. The concertos represent one of Mozart's greatest achievements with their combination of lyricism and symphony. In 1786 he also wrote three comic operas, including Don Giovanni, and Cosi Fan Tutte focusing on the interplay of social and sexual tensions.
Mozart lived in Vienna for the rest of his life but travelled for concerts and operas. He continued to write piano sonatas, string quartets and his last four symphonies. He also became a Freemason and it was his masonic friends who helped to support him financially. Mozart also incorporated masonic symbolism into some of his final works. Mozart died from a mysterious, feverish illness in 1791 aged just 35. At the time there was much speculation, subsequently unfounded, that he had been poisoned. He left behind an unfinished Requiem, his first large scale work for the church since the C Minor Mass of 1783. Mozart was buried in a Vienna suburb with little ceremony in an unmarked grave. His music has continued to move listeners for over two centuries offering different qualities to new generations and in the process has almost become a trademark for classical music. In various studies it's been noted that classical music can make people and animals relax or become more productive. Mozart's music is most closely associated with this phenomenon, giving rise to the phrase the 'Mozart Effect'. On the day of his death his wife Constanze wrote: 'Mozart - Never to big forgotten by me or by the whole of Europe.' ends




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