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bob marley kimdir ? bob marley biyografi
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bob marley

Quite simply, Bob Marley is the only reggae artist ever to achieve international superstar status. While evolving his sound to encompass rock and African themes, Marley never diluted his message, underpinning his music with the politics and theology of his Rastafarian beliefs. He has inspired everyone from Stevie Wonder to The Clash and with 1977's Exodus album, he produced arguably the greatest reggae album ever made.

Robert Nesta Marley was born on 6 February, 1945 into the poor Jamaican country area of Nine Miles, St Ann's Parish. His family kept chickens and goats and used a hole in the ground as a toilet. Bob's parentage guaranteed him a disrupted childhood. Born to a black mother, Cedella Malcolm, a smallholders daughter and white father, Captain Norval Marley, a government official, Bob soon ran off to Kingston and began a wandering childhood between Kingston and Nine Miles once his parents split.

As a teenager Marley spent his time on street corners, singing doo-wop harmonies with his friends Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer' Livingstone and Junior Braithwaite until a young singer called Desmond Dekker introduced the friends to Jimmy Cliff, then a 14-year-old A&R scout for top producer Leslie Kong. Marley and chums recorded two songs, Judge Not and One Cup Of Coffee, subsequently released as singles.


Calling themselves the Wailing Wailers, the group were signed by Coxsone Dodd for whom they recorded more than twenty singles between 1963 and 1967. In 1966 Marley married Rita Anderson, a Rastafarian and began to gravitate towards her religion. After a disagreement over royalties the group split with Dodd and the band set up their own label, Wailing Soul (later Tuff Gong). But it was the band's meeting with the barmy but brilliant Jamaican producer Lee 'Scratch' Perry that would change their fortunes. Perry gave the band a tougher sound which suited the militancy of new Perry and Marley songs Duppy Conqueror and Small Axe. Together the band produced arguably the first great reggae albums, Soul Rebel and Soul Revolution. But by 1971, after stints with label mate Johnny Nash's band in Sweden, Marley had begun to feel boxed in and frustrated with his career. Through Nash, CBS in Britain released Marley's Reggae On Broadway and the Wailers travelled to London with the intention of seeking out producer, label boss and reggae fanatic Chris Blackwell of Island Records. Blackwell signed them to a long-term contract and the first fruit, 1972's Catch A Fire album was a critical success - its blend of rock, soul, blues and reggae featuring overdubs by Blackwell and a rhythm track provided by Sly Dunbar and Robbie Shakespear.

Major tours of Britain and America followed in 1973 but Tosh and Wailer would soon quit the band because of the heavy touring schedule and Blackwell's tendency to concentrate on making Marley the star.

1973's Burnin' album featured the songs Get Up , Stand Up and I Shot The Sherrif, subsequently recorded by Eric Clapton in 1974 who scored a US No.1 with the song. The ballad No Woman No Cry was the outstanding track on Marley's next album, 1974's Natty Dread. It would put Marley and reggae firmly on the world map.

In Britain particularly, with the rise of the National Front and a perceived police harassment of black youths, Marley's message struck a chord with disaffected youths and lent a rebel spirit to a new wave of British black music that included Steel Pulse, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Aswad and rockers like The Clash and Elvis Costello. In Jamaica he was perhaps viewed more critically where a musical scene driven by dub-based, street sounds systems viewed his music as light and overly commercial. But one thing was certain. Marley had earned respect from every quarter for taking reggae to a worldwide audience.

1976 was a tense, violent election year in Jamaica. Marley remained politically neutral but decided to diffuse the tension by organising the Smile Jamaica concert to reconcile opposing leaders. The left-wing People's National Party leader Michael Manley immediately co-opted the concert so it was perceived that Marley was behind him. A few weeks before the election and the concert itself unknown gunmen broke into Marley's home in Hope Road shooting and injuring Marley and his wife Rita. Marley, who would permanently have a bullet lodged in his arm, hampering his guitar playing, later went ahead with the concert but afterwards he moved to Nassau and the Bahamas, forever wary about spending time in his homeland. His friend Peter Tosh would later be murdered by gunmen.

Marley's career resumed in 1977 with his career-defining Exodus album. The album accentuated the positivity in Marley's work with the pure joy of Jamming, the Rasta references of the title track and the spiritual pulse of Natural Mystic. 1978's Kaya album featured further tracks from the Exodus sessions and the UK Top 10 hit, Is This Love. In 1977 Marley was brought back to earth when he had an operation for a melanoma on his right big toe.

Marley now found new inspiration from Africa. His 1978 world tour took him to Gabon, an experience reflected in 1979's Survival album which included Zimbabwe, a liberation anthem taken up by many African musicians. Marley was invited to perform at Zimbabwe's independence celebrations in 1980 and for the then, seemingly benevolent country's leader Robert Mugabe. That year's Uprising album showed again how African elements had seeped into Marley's work with Junior Murvin's highlife guitar featured on the UK hit, Could You Be Loved.

The album would be Marley's last work. In September 1980 Marley collapsed while jogging in Central Park in New York. He was diagnosed as having cancer. The following month he checked into a Bavarian clinic and was looked after by his mother, Cedella. But the cancer was so advanced that Marley died within a matter of months. Marley died at the Cedars of Lebanon hospital in Miami on 11 May, 1981. The Jamaican government, which had awarded him the title Honourable, organised a state funeral. Observers remarked that Marley's funeral was probably the only time the nation has been united and although reggae didn't die with Bob Marley there may never be a successor to catch the fire like he did.


Calling themselves the Wailing Wailers, the group were signed by Coxsone Dodd for whom they recorded more than twenty singles between 1963 and 1967. In 1966 Marley married Rita Anderson, a Rastafarian and began to gravitate towards her religion. After a disagreement over royalties the group split with Dodd and the band set up their own label, Wailing Soul (later Tuff Gong). But it was the band's meeting with the barmy but brilliant Jamaican producer Lee 'Scratch' Perry that would change their fortunes. Perry gave the band a tougher sound which suited the militancy of new Perry and Marley songs Duppy Conqueror and Small Axe. Together the band produced arguably the first great reggae albums, Soul Rebel and Soul Revolution. But by 1971, after stints with label mate Johnny Nash's band in Sweden, Marley had begun to feel boxed in and frustrated with his career. Through Nash, CBS in Britain released Marley's Reggae On Broadway and the Wailers travelled to London with the intention of seeking out producer, label boss and reggae fanatic Chris Blackwell of Island Records. Blackwell signed them to a long-term contract and the first fruit, 1972's Catch A Fire album was a critical success - its blend of rock, soul, blues and reggae featuring overdubs by Blackwell and a rhythm track provided by Sly Dunbar and Robbie Shakespear.

Major tours of Britain and America followed in 1973 but Tosh and Wailer would soon quit the band because of the heavy touring schedule and Blackwell's tendency to concentrate on making Marley the star.

1973's Burnin' album featured the songs Get Up , Stand Up and I Shot The Sherrif, subsequently recorded by Eric Clapton in 1974 who scored a US No.1 with the song. The ballad No Woman No Cry was the outstanding track on Marley's next album, 1974's Natty Dread. It would put Marley and reggae firmly on the world map.

In Britain particularly, with the rise of the National Front and a perceived police harassment of black youths, Marley's message struck a chord with disaffected youths and lent a rebel spirit to a new wave of British black music that included Steel Pulse, Linton Kwesi Johnson, Aswad and rockers like The Clash and Elvis Costello. In Jamaica he was perhaps viewed more critically where a musical scene driven by dub-based, street sounds systems viewed his music as light and overly commercial. But one thing was certain. Marley had earned respect from every quarter for taking reggae to a worldwide audience.

1976 was a tense, violent election year in Jamaica. Marley remained politically neutral but decided to diffuse the tension by organising the Smile Jamaica concert to reconcile opposing leaders. The left-wing People's National Party leader Michael Manley immediately co-opted the concert so it was perceived that Marley was behind him. A few weeks before the election and the concert itself unknown gunmen broke into Marley's home in Hope Road shooting and injuring Marley and his wife Rita. Marley, who would permanently have a bullet lodged in his arm, hampering his guitar playing, later went ahead with the concert but afterwards he moved to Nassau and the Bahamas, forever wary about spending time in his homeland. His friend Peter Tosh would later be murdered by gunmen.

Marley's career resumed in 1977 with his career-defining Exodus album. The album accentuated the positivity in Marley's work with the pure joy of Jamming, the Rasta references of the title track and the spiritual pulse of Natural Mystic. 1978's Kaya album featured further tracks from the Exodus sessions and the UK Top 10 hit, Is This Love. In 1977 Marley was brought back to earth when he had an operation for a melanoma on his right big toe.
Marley now found new inspiration from Africa. His 1978 world tour took him to Gabon, an experience reflected in 1979's Survival album which included Zimbabwe, a liberation anthem taken up by many African musicians. Marley was invited to perform at Zimbabwe's independence celebrations in 1980 and for the then, seemingly benevolent country's leader Robert Mugabe. That year's Uprising album showed again how African elements had seeped into Marley's work with Junior Murvin's highlife guitar featured on the UK hit, Could You Be Loved.

The album would be Marley's last work. In September 1980 Marley collapsed while jogging in Central Park in New York. He was diagnosed as having cancer. The following month he checked into a Bavarian clinic and was looked after by his mother, Cedella. But the cancer was so advanced that Marley died within a matter of months. Marley died at the Cedars of Lebanon hospital in Miami on 11 May, 1981. The Jamaican government, which had awarded him the title Honourable, organised a state funeral. Observers remarked that Marley's funeral was probably the only time the nation has been united and although reggae didn't die with Bob Marley there may never be a successor to catch the fire like he did.




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