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Beethoven's achievement as one of classical music's greatest composers is even greater when you consider his own struggle with deafness and his rejection of court society. Beethoven was the first important composer to openly declare himself an artist serving a higher calling than the court or aristocracy. And consider, in today's musical climate, Beethoven's deafness would have been a positive advantage if he'd been a judge on X Factor...

Ludwig Van Beethoven was born in Bonn, Germany in 1770. His father Johann was himself a court musician in the service of the Elector of Cologne at Bonn. Beethoven senior was strict with his son and had dreams of him following in Mozart's footsteps. But the young Ludwig often rebelled at his father's strictness. Ludwig studied with a court organist, CG Neefe and at 12 he was already deputising for his teacher and had some music published.

At the age of 17 Beethoven made his first trip to Vienna but upon learning his Mother was gravely ill he immediately returned home. He returned to Vienna 5 years later and made it his home. In Vienna, Beethoven studied under classical composer, Haydn and he quickly became successful as a piano virtuoso, finding patronage among the music-loving Viennese aristocracy. Initially, Beethoven played at private houses or palaces rather than in public. The composer made his public debut in 1795, about the same time his first important publications appeared, three piano trios and three piano sonatas. Beethoven displayed a new, explosive kind of piano playing that set him apart from the elegance of Mozart. These years also saw the composition of his first three piano concertos, his first two symphonies and a set of six string quartets.
But by 1802 Beethoven realised that the impaired hearing he had been suffering from for some time, possibly brought on by syphillis, had become incurable and infact was worsening. Beethoven retired to a village outside Vienna to write a will-like document addressed to his two brothers suggesting that he thought death was near. But miraculously he survived his affliction and emerged with renewed strength, entering a new creative phase, generally called his 'middle period.' This period was characterised by heroic symphonies, most notably the Eroica Symphony, dedicated to Napoleon because Beethoven said he respected liberty and fraternity which Napoleon had originally appeared to stand for during the French Revolution. However when Napoleon was crowned Emperor, Beethoven is said to have been so dismayed that he crossed out the dedication. Piano sonatas and string quartets followed as well as Beethoven's most celebrated piece, the Fifth Symphony - its biblical tones, heroism and grandeur pointed the way to the loftiest aspirations of the musical form in the 19th century.

Other seminal works from his middle period include masterpieces such as the Violin Concerto, the Piano Sonata No.21, the Pastoral Symphony No. 6 (which reflected Beethoven's love of the countryside) and the Rasumovsky string quartets. Much of the music featured an enormous expansion of classical forms and themes. Beethoven's opera, Fidelio concerned a wife who saves her imprisoned husband after the French revolution. Beethoven's central character, Leonore, was his idealized image of womanhood but he didn't find it in real life. He fell in love several times, usually with aristocratic pupils and each time was either rejected or felt that the woman didn't match his ideals. This period saw Beethoven establish himself as the greatest composer of his time.

His piano playing career had finished in 1808 because of his deafness. The years after 1812 saw Beethoven become increasingly depressed by his affliction, the resulting isolation and his failure to marry. He was also involved in a legal battle to gain custody of his late brother's son. (Which he eventually won). But he came out of these troubles to write perhaps his profoundest music. Labelled as his 'late period' Beethoven produced seven piano sonatas, including the turbulent Hammerklavier, a great Mass and a Choral Symphony, No. 9 in D Minor and a group of string quartets. It was music with a newly discovered spiritual depth, with emotional intensity and exalted themes. The Viennese public were cautious about Beethoven's latter output, preferring the emerging light Italian opera such as Rossini and light chamber music. But they still acknowledged the composer%u2019s greatness. They applauded Beethoven%u2019s Choral Symphony and admired the depth of his later quartets. His music was performed as far afield as St. Petersburg in Russia and by the Philharmonic Society of London.
Beethoven died in early 1827. He had become such a respected public figure that 10,000 people attended his funeral. Because he had never set out to compose music for nobility he became a people's artist. His independent character and the transcendence of his music would go on to inspire generations of romantic composers. His latter works especially, influenced by his state of resignation over his illness and his lot in life, convey passion, contemplation understanding and humour. His search for deeper musical and emotional truths would make him a romantic classical music hero like no other

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